Polarized sunglasses are specialized eyewear designed to reduce glare from surfaces such as water, snow, and glass. Glare distorts the true color of objects and makes them harder to distinguish. Polarized sunglasses can be useful for certain sports and driving, helping participants to see more clearly and avoid potential hazards.
Sunlight can be absorbed or reflected in several different directions. Sunlight that is bouncing off horizontal surfaces such as water, land, or the hood of a car is usually reflected back in a similar horizontal direction.
Polarized lenses contain a laminated filter that allows only vertically oriented light to pass through. This blocks the horizontally oriented light so that glare is almost eliminated.
(Information is taken from https://www.verywellhealth.com/polarized-sunglasses-3422163)